The tracks of a mass of concentrated searchlights and tracer bullets from anti-aircraft fire cover the larger area of the picture as the first bombs explode on the city (lower left). Charles Messenger (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. 1000-Bomber Raid over Cologne In 1942, the middle of World War II, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) chose a 90-minute window to bomb the German city of Koelln (Cologne). In May, 1942, the British RAF's Bomber Command conducted its first 1,000 plane mission, against the city of Cologne in Germany. British RAF Launched A 1,000 Bomber Raid Against Cologne, Germany, This Day 75-Years Ago; May 30, 1942 — First Ever 1,000 Bomber Attack. Although, the city of Hamburg had been the intended target, bad weather over northern Germany had caused Cologne to be selected instead. Loading... more; Motorist narrowly escapes death after truck flips onto car in southern China. As so often before, the air raid alarms sound at midnight in Cologne. However, over 5,000 people were injured and over 45,000 were “bombed out” of their homes. A squadron of 1,046 RAF bombers was approaching. Later mass RAF raids used between 400 and 700 four-engined bombers, and on some nights, Bomber Command could send two 400-bomber forces to separate targets. 106 Squadron RAF, including their Commanding Officer, Wing Commander Guy Gibson (standing middle, front row), celebrate on their return to Coningsby, Lincolnshire, from the ‘Thousand Bomber’ raid on Cologne, … The above photograph is perhaps one of the most important in the squadron history. These OTU aircraft were crewed by a combination of instructors, many of them ex-operational aircrew on ‘rest tours’, and aircrew in the later stages of their courses who were not yet fully trained. When Churchill and Harris discussed the possible casualty figures, Churchill said that he would be prepared for the loss of 100 aircraft. Not only does the photo depict the first 1000 bomber raid ever undertaken it records … You'll be able to post in these if you are a Club member. On the night of May 30, 1942, the R.A.F. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Meteorite crashes into pensioner's garden in Thailand. Article discusses effect of operation against Cologne. description Object description. Britain was only able to produce 7,377 Lancasters during the war, at a cost of £45,000 to £50,000 each (around £2 million today.) This was an official oil-on-board painting by British war artist W. Krogman. Over three thousand buildings were destroyed and another nine thousand damaged. Register to receive our latest news and competitions by email. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for COLOGNE THE FIRST 1000- BOMBER RAID at Amazon.com. The raid dropped 1,455 tons of explosives on the city- two thirds of them incendiary. In order to get 1,000 planes, the … The First 1000 Bomber Rain in History. whole: Dimensions: 24cm., Pagination: 64p. Innenstadt, Cologne in 1945 The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of 30/31 May 1942. Our target was Cologne and we got there without incident. 1000-Bomber Raid over Cologne. Little margin wear and minor staining, otherwise good. These events also placed Sir Arthur Harris firmly in the public eye, where he would remain for the rest of his life. The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: The most notable attack on Cologne was the first Allied 1,000 bomber raid on 30/31 May 1942. The number of people killed on the ground in Cologne was remarkably low, less than 500, presumably a testament to the air raid shelters. The ‘1000 Bomber’ raid on Cologne had shown that mass bombing was inaccurate and not totally fruitful in terms of strategic gains. RAF Bomber Command’s first 1,000 bomber raid – codenamed Operation Millennium – took place 75 years ago this month on the night of 30th/31st May 1942. ill., … During the 1939 to 1945 period the Royal Air Force dropped 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city. It was Cologne which became the target of the colossal raid on the night of 30th May 1942. This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). The raiders’ squadrons were a Commonwealth mixture: British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealander, and South African. It survived the war, despite being hit dozens of times by Allied bombs. COLOGNE THE FIRST 1000- BOMBER RAID Unknown Binding – 1 Jan. 1982 by Charles Messenger (Author) › Visit Amazon's Charles Messenger Page. Bradford Timeline has uploaded 39374 photos to Flickr. During the 1939 to 1945 period the Royal Air Force dropped 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city. This tells of the famous 1,000 bomber raid on Cologne Germany by the RAF during World War II. The Times. This first 1,000 bomber raid was considered a success; it made its mark on history and it was a turning point for RAF Bomber Command in the war, setting the tone and tactics for future operations. Cologne May 30th 1942 (1000 Bomber Raid ) Operations Board RAF Marham May 30th 1942. Bradford Timeline has uploaded 39374 photos to Flickr. Almost 13,000 buildings were destroyed of which over 2,500 were industrial or commercial buildings. The tracks of a mass of concentrated searchlights and tracer bullets from anti-aircraft fire cover the larger area of the picture as the first bombs explode on the city (lower left).  The term was a propaganda device, whereby Arthur Harris reached the number of bombers by including not only bombers that were currently operational as part of RAF Bomber Command, but also aircrews from Operational Training Units to accumulate a force of 1,000 bombers as a demonstration of the RAF's power. The term "thousand-bomber raid" was used to describe three night bombing raids by the Royal Air Force against German cities in summer 1942 during World War II. by Anura Guruge Members of No. Free delivery for many products! First 1,000 bomber raid Official British war art imagining a bombing raid on Cologne. Cologne May 30th 1942 (1000 Bomber Raid ) Operations Board RAF Marham May 30th 1942. That same publicity confirmed Bomber Command's future as a major force. For example the 20 Feb '44 raid did indeed number 1,003 bombers, but they were divided over three … I well remember the 30th May 1942 the date of the first 1000 Bomber raid on Cologne. Opening hours: 10am – 5pm Monday to Friday, RAF Bomber Command’s first 1,000 bomber raid May 1942, Lancaster PA474 at Duxford for maintenance, Christmas membership gifts - order by 17th December, Win a limited edition Three Sisters commemorative plate. The city's cathedral is clearly visible. The recent introduction of the radio navigation aid ‘Gee’ made it easier for the crews whose aircraft were equipped with it to navigate within the precise limits required for such flying. The RAF Bomber Command under the leadership of Arthur Harris was seeking a way to demoralize the German population and war effort. Pilot's Map for Cologne Raid: Getting Ready for the Cologne Raid: Pilot's Map for the Essen Raid: I was still at the O.T.U. Meteorite crashes into pensioner's garden in Thailand. The total losses exceeded the previous highest of 37 aircraft on the night of 7/8th November 1941 when a large force was sent out in bad weather conditions, but the proportion of the force lost in the Cologne raid – 3.9 per cent of the bombers sent on the raid – though high, was deemed acceptable. 1000 bomber raids. Vertical aerial photograph taken during Operation MILLENNIUM, the 'Thousand-bomber' raid on Cologne, Germany 30/31 May 1942. 1942. Fitting tribute to war heroes NEXT weekend marks the 70th anniversary of the first 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne, a highly significant operation when … search results for this author. In May 1942 there were only four operational squadrons fully equipped with the new four-engine Avro Lancaster heavy bomber. The thousand plane raid [the story of the first massive air raid - 1000 bombers against the city of Cologne Item Preview The success of that first raid was convincing while the two major follow up ‘Thousand’ raids on Essen and Bremen in June were less so, but still emphatically justified Bomber Command’s new … on May 31, 1942 when the first 1,000 plane raid was carried out. 30–31 May 1942 : First thousand-bomber raid, 1,047 aircraft dispatched in "Operation Millennium" against Cologne.This saw the first use of the "bomber stream" to overwhelm enemy radar and defences by flying in a narrow dense formation.Bomber Command recorded 868 bombers attacking the target with 1,455 tons of bombs. 3 The 1000 Bomber Raid on Cologne (Köln) - 1942 . The headline-grabbing first ever 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne during the night of May 30/31, 1942, was intended to severely damage German morale and maybe serve to knock Nazi Germany out of the war. Bibl.:p.62-64. 3 The 1000 Bomber Raid on Cologne (Köln) - 1942 . However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940. In little over ninety minutes, 1,455 tons of high explosive bombs and 915 tons of incendiaries rained down, killing more than 500 people and injuring another 5,000. RAF Bomber Command’s first 1,000 bomber raid – codenamed Operation Millennium – took place 75 years ago this month on the night of 30th/31st May 1942. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosive. On the reverse 'Cologne, C2550'. STATION. Section on anxious memories mentions that effect casualties on eastern front and air attacks revives first world war saying "Wir siegen uns tot", "We are killing ourselves by our victories". 106 Squadron RAF, including their Commanding Officer, Wing Commander Guy Gibson (standing middle, front row), celebrate on their return to Coningsby, Lincolnshire, from the ‘Thousand Bomber’ raid on Cologne, … Loading... more; Motorist narrowly escapes death after truck flips onto car in southern China. Interestingly, the highest losses were suffered by the first waves of bombers, those with the operational and experienced crews, whilst the training aircraft and those crewed by pupil crews suffered lower casualties, indicating that the German defences had become increasingly overwhelmed as the raid went on. The major innovation was the introduction of a bomber stream in which all aircraft would fly by a common route and at the same speed to and from the target, each aircraft being allotted a height band and a time slot in the stream to minimize the risk of collision. Pilot's Map for Cologne Raid: Getting Ready for the Cologne Raid: Pilot's Map for the Essen Raid: I was still at the O.T.U. Reno crash of Questair M-20 Venture. Explore Bradford Timeline's photos on Flickr. 1942-06-11. Innenstadt, Cologne in 1945. Since then it had received dozens of nuisance raids and diversions by small numbers of aircraft. OPERATIONS AND THE 1,000 BOMBER RAIDS. Raids. A further bomber was brought down by coastal artillery.” It is the night of 30-31 May 1942. report. We’ll also set you up with an account for our Forum and Gallery. Nearly 900 were sent to Berlin in February 1944; with aircraft on other missions that night more than 1,000 bombers were active, but 1,000 bombers were never sent against a single target after June 1942. https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1057367.shtml, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thousand-bomber_raids&oldid=970292612, History of the Royal Air Force during World War II, World War II strategic bombing of Germany, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 30–31 May 1942 : First thousand-bomber raid, 1,047 aircraft dispatched in, 1–2 June 1942 : Second thousand-bomber raid, This page was last edited on 30 July 2020, at 13:03. However, the first actual bombing took place on 12 May 1940. Buy COLOGNE THE FIRST 1000- BOMBER RAID First Edition by Messenger, Charles (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. First 1,000 bomber raid [edit | edit source] File:Cologne 1945 5.jpg. The largest bombing raid of World War II was the British attack on Cologne, Germany, on May 30, 1942, when over 1,000 bombers were sent to destroy chemical and machine tool facilities there in a single-night attack. It was the first of almost nightly raids against German cities by the RAF. During the night of May 31, 1942, Cologne was the site of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of 30/31 May 1942.The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: This saw the first use of the "bomber stream" to overwhelm enemy radar and defences by flying in a narrow dense formation. Briefing is over and we are now aware of the target and the reason for the raid, the industrial centre of Cologne is to be annihilated. 1942 RAF Launches 1,000 Bomber Raid. By true 1,000 bomber raids I meant where 1,000 bombers were sent against a 'single' target - as the British did against Cologne, Essen and Bremen. Eventually, on 30th May 1942, 1,047 bombers took off to bomb Cologne, the third largest city in Germany. This force was more than two and a half times greater than any previous single night's effort by Bomber Command up to this point of the war. It was gradually replaced in the European theatre by the four-engined Stirlings, Halifaxes and Lancasters, however. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Date. The RAF lost 41 aircraft, 22 of them over or near Cologne, of which 16 were shot down by ‘flak’, four by night fighters, and two were lost in a mid-air collision. The raid proved that the new tactics could be successful; there were few casualties through collisions and subsequently the time over target would be progressively shortened until 700 or 800 aircraft could bomb in less than 20 minutes! Flying Officer Leslie Manser, a 50 Squadron pilot flying an Avro Manchester who sacrificed himself so that his crew could abandon the aircraft, was subsequently awarded the Victoria Cross. Phone explodes in man's face as he attempts to change the battery in China . The overall effect is curiously ... Cover image: The Bombing Raid on Cologne from National Archives UK. Header image: Vickers Wellingtons made up the majority of the force that took part in the RAF’s first 1,000 bomber raid. To muster 1046 Bombers aircraft from training units had to … The raiders’ squadrons were a Commonwealth mixture: British, … (artwork: Gary Eason flightartworks.com). The target was Cologne, a city with one million inhabitants. Two and a half thousand separate fires were started, 1,700 of which were classed by the German fire brigade as "large". The Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command, Air Marshal Arthur ‘Bomber’ Harris, eventually managed to assemble a force that exceeded the ‘magic number’. If you don't, this raid instead of being the costliest in history for the enemy, could be the costliest in history for us. You are browsing in: Archive List > Royal Air Force. The psychologically important and newsworthy figure of 1,000 bombers was not easy to achieve. Photographs. Famously it had been the first target in the 1000 bomber raids of 1942. The term was a propaganda device, whereby Arthur Harris included some modern four-engined "heavy" bombers but mostly 1930s-era twin-engine "medium" bombers and many otherwise unsuitable small bombers and trainee aircrews in the … Photographs. The headline-grabbing first ever 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne during the night of May 30/31, 1942, was intended to severely damage German morale and maybe serve to knock Nazi Germany out of the war. Description. This, it was hoped, would swamp the ‘flak’ defences at the target and deliver such a concentration of blast and incendiary bombs in a short period that the fire services would be overwhelmed. It was Cologne which became the target of the colossal raid on the night of 30th May 1942. How Germany reacts to air attacks. (3) Group Captain Dudley Saward wrote about the Cologne raid in the book, The Bomber… targeted Cologne with its first 1,000 bomber raid. Publisher. The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of 30/31 May 1942.The Thousand bomber raid was launched for several reasons: It was expected that the devastation from such raids might be enough to knock Germany out of the war or at least severely damage German morale. Official counter-measure. Vertical aerial photograph taken during Operation MILLENNIUM, the 'Thousand-bomber' raid on Cologne, Germany 30/31 May 1942. However, Harris, supported at this time by Winston Churchill, still believed that a devastating attack on a symbolic target would push the Nazis into seeking a peace deal.Cologne, Dortmund and Dusseldorf had all been bombed. THE 1000-BOMBER RAID ON BREMEN : SCENES AT AN R.A.F. The First 1000 Bomber Rain in History The most notable attack on Cologne was the first Allied 1,000 bomber raid on 30/31 May 1942. Bomber Command recorded 868 bombers attacking the target with 1,455 tons of bombs. Show more. Amazon Price New from Used from Paperback "Please retry" £1.18 — £1.18: Paperback £1.18 9 Used … OPERATIONS AND THE 1,000 BOMBER RAIDS. On May 31st the RAF launched it first 1,000 plane raid against a German city- Cologne. Photographs. In order to get 1,000 planes, the R.A.F. Over the target, where earlier in the war four hours had been allowed for raids by only 100 aircraft, a mere 90 minutes was planned for 1,000 aircraft to bomb. It was subsequently estimated that between 135,000 and 150,000 of Cologne’s population of nearly 700,000 fled the city after the raid. In view of the fearful risk of sending out so many untrained and inexperienced crews and the potential for immense losses, this was a huge gamble. Just after midnight on 30 May 1942, the city along the Rhine River was awakened to the wailing of air-raid sirens. Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. Explore Bradford Timeline's photos on Flickr. 1st 1000 plane bomber raid, Cologne, 30th /31st May 1942 by Jenni Waugh. COLOGNE'S LOSS UP IN BRITISH TALLY; Air Ministry Now Estimates 250 Factories Were Blasted in 1,000-Bomber Raid IBCC Digital Archive. Air raid alarms went off in the winter/spring of 1940 as enemy bombers passed overhead. The bulk of the bomber force was twin-engined medium bombers such as the Vickers Wellington.